PARALLEL ILS APPROACHES- Approaches to parallel runways by IFR aircraft which, when established inbound toward the airport on the adjacent final approach courses, are radar-separated by at least 2 miles.
(See FINAL APPROACH COURSE.)
(See SIMULTANEOUS ILS APPROACHES.)
PARALLEL MLS APPROACHES-
(See PARALLEL ILS APPROACHES.)
PARALLEL OFFSET ROUTE- A parallel track to the left or right of the designated or established airway/route. Normally associated with Area Navigation (RNAV) operations.
(See AREA NAVIGATION.)
PARALLEL RUNWAYS- Two or more runways at the same airport whose centerlines are parallel. In addition to runway number, parallel runways are designated as L (left) and R (right) or, if three parallel runways exist, L (left), C (center), and R (right).
(See PROPOSED BOUNDARY CROSSING TIME.)
PERMANENT ECHO- Radar signals reflected from fixed objects on the earth's surface; e.g., buildings, towers, terrain. Permanent echoes are distinguished from "ground clutter" by being definable locations rather than large areas. Under certain conditions they may be used to check radar alignment.
PHOTO RECONNAISSANCE- Military activity that requires locating individual photo targets and navigating to the targets at a preplanned angle and altitude. The activity normally requires a lateral route width of 16 NM and altitude range of 1,500 feet to 10,000 feet AGL.
(See PROGRAMMABLE INDICATOR DATA PROCESSOR.)
PILOT BRIEFING- A service provided by the FSS to assist pilots in flight planning. Briefing items may include weather information, NOTAMS, military activities, flow control information, and other items as requested.
PILOT IN COMMAND- The pilot responsible for the operation and safety of an aircraft during flight time.
PILOT'S DISCRETION- When used in conjunction with altitude assignments, means that ATC has offered the pilot the option of starting climb or descent whenever he wishes and conducting the climb or descent at any rate he wishes. He may temporarily level off at any intermediate altitude. However, once he has vacated an altitude, he may not return to that altitude.
PILOT WEATHER REPORT- A report of meteorological phenomena encountered by aircraft in flight.
(See PILOT WEATHER REPORT.)
(See RADAR POINT OUT.)
POLAR TRACK STRUCTURE- A system of organized routes between Iceland and Alaska which overlie Canadian MNPS Airspace.
POSITION REPORT- A report over a known location as transmitted by an aircraft to ATC.
POSITION SYMBOL- A computer-generated indication shown on a radar display to indicate the mode of tracking.
POSITIVE CONTROL- The separation of all air traffic within designated airspace by air traffic control.
PRACTICE INSTRUMENT APPROACH- An instrument approach procedure conducted by a VFR or an IFR aircraft for the purpose of pilot training or proficiency demonstrations.
PREARRANGED COORDINATION- A standardized procedure which permits an air traffic controller to enter the airspace assigned to another air traffic controller without verbal coordination. The procedures are defined in a facility directive which ensures standard separation between aircraft.
PRECIPITATION- Any or all forms of water particles (rain, sleet, hail, or snow) that fall from the atmosphere and reach the surface.
(See PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE- A standard instrument approach procedure in which an electronic glideslope/glidepath is provided; e.g., ILS/MLS and PAR.
(See INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM.)
(See MICROWAVE LANDING SYSTEM.)
(See PRECISION APPROACH RADAR.)
PRECISION APPROACH RADAR- Radar equipment in some ATC facilities operated by the FAA and/or the military services at joint-use civil/military locations and separate military installations to detect and display azimuth, elevation, and range of aircraft on the final approach course to a runway. This equipment may be used to monitor certain nonradar approaches, but is primarily used to conduct a precision instrument approach (PAR) wherein the controller issues guidance instructions to the pilot based on the aircraft's position in relation to the final approach course (azimuth), the glidepath (elevation), and the distance (range) from the touchdown point on the runway as displayed on the radar scope.
(Note: The abbreviation "PAR" is also used to denote preferential arrival routes in ARTCC computers).
(See PREFERENTIAL ROUTES.)
(See ICAO term PRECISION APPROACH RADAR.)
PRECISION APPROACH RADAR [ICAO]- Primary radar equipment used to determine the position of an aircraft during final approach, in terms of lateral and vertical deviations relative to a nominal approach path, and in range relative to touchdown.
NOTE: Precision approach radars are designed to enable pilots of aircraft to be given guidance by radio communication during the final stages of the approach to land.
PRECISION RUNWAY MONITOR (PRM)- Provides air traffic controllers with high precision secondary surveillance data for aircraft on final approach to parallel runways that have extended centerlines separated by less than 4,300 feet. High resolution color monitoring displays (FMA) are required to present surveillance track data to controllers along with detailed maps depicting approaches and no transgression zone.
PREFERENTIAL ROUTES- Preferential routes (PDR's, PAR's, and PDAR's) are adapted in ARTCC computers to accomplish inter/intrafacility controller coordination and to assure that flight data is posted at the proper control positions. Locations having a need for these specific inbound and outbound routes normally publish such routes in local facility bulletins, and their use by pilots minimizes flight plan route amendments. When the workload or traffic situation permits, controllers normally provide radar vectors or assign requested routes to minimize circuitous routing. Preferential routes are usually confined to one ARTCC's area and are referred to by the following names or acronyms:
a. Preferential Departure Route (PDR). A specific departure route from an airport or terminal area to an en route point where there is no further need for flow control. It may be included in an Instrument Departure Procedure (DP) or a Preferred IFR Route.
b. Preferential Arrival Route (PAR). A specific arrival route from an appropriate en route point to an airport or terminal area. It may be included in a Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) or a Preferred IFR Route. The abbreviation "PAR" is used primarily within the ARTCC and should not be confused with the abbreviation for Precision Approach Radar.
c. Preferential Departure and Arrival Route (PDAR). A route between two terminals which are within or immediately adjacent to one ARTCC's area. PDAR's are not synonymous with Preferred IFR Routes but may be listed as such as they do accomplish essentially the same purpose.
(See PREFERRED IFR ROUTES.)
(See NAS STAGE A.)
PREFERRED IFR ROUTES- Routes established between busier airports to increase system efficiency and capacity. They normally extend through one or more ARTCC areas and are designed to achieve balanced traffic flows among high density terminals. IFR clearances are issued on the basis of these routes except when severe weather avoidance procedures or other factors dictate otherwise. Preferred IFR Routes are listed in the Airport/Facility Directory. If a flight is planned to or from an area having such routes but the departure or arrival point is not listed in the Airport/Facility Directory, pilots may use that part of a Preferred IFR Route which is appropriate for the departure or arrival point that is listed. Preferred IFR Routes are correlated with DP's and STAR's and may be defined by airways, jet routes, direct routes between NAVAID's, Waypoints, NAVAID radials/DME, or any combinations thereof.
(See INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE PROCEDURE.)
(See STANDARD TERMINAL ARRIVAL.)
(See PREFERENTIAL ROUTES.)
(See CENTER'S AREA.)
PRE-FLIGHT PILOT BRIEFING-
(See PILOT BRIEFING.)
(See ILS PRM APPROACH and PRECISION RUNWAY MONITOR.)
PROCEDURE TURN- The maneuver prescribed when it is necessary to reverse direction to establish an aircraft on the intermediate approach segment or final approach course. The outbound course, direction of turn, distance within which the turn must be completed, and minimum altitude are specified in the procedure. However, unless otherwise restricted, the point at which the turn may be commenced and the type and rate of turn are left to the discretion of the pilot.
(See ICAO term PROCEDURE TURN.)
PROCEDURE TURN [ICAO]- A manoeuvre in which a turn is made away from a designated track followed by a turn in the opposite direction to permit the aircraft to intercept and proceed along the reciprocal of the designated track.
NOTE 1: Procedure turns are designated "left" or "right" according to the direction of the initial turn.
NOTE 2: Procedure turns may be designated as being made either in level flight or while descending, according to the circumstances of each individual approach procedure.
PROCEDURE TURN INBOUND- That point of a procedure turn maneuver where course reversal has been completed and an aircraft is established inbound on the intermediate approach segment or final approach course. A report of "procedure turn inbound" is normally used by ATC as a position report for separation purposes.
(See FINAL APPROACH COURSE.)
(See PROCEDURE TURN.)
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
PROFILE DESCENT- An uninterrupted descent (except where level flight is required for speed adjustment; e.g., 250 knots at 10,000 feet MSL) from cruising altitude/level to interception of a glideslope or to a minimum altitude specified for the initial or intermediate approach segment of a nonprecision instrument approach. The profile descent normally terminates at the approach gate or where the glideslope or other appropriate minimum altitude is intercepted.
PROGRAMMABLE INDICATOR DATA PROCESSOR- The PIDP is a modification to the AN/TPX-42 interrogator system currently installed in fixed RAPCON's. The PIDP detects, tracks, and predicts secondary radar aircraft targets. These are displayed by means of computer-generated symbols and alphanumeric characters depicting flight identification, aircraft altitude, ground speed, and flight plan data. Although primary radar targets are not tracked, they are displayed coincident with the secondary radar targets as well as with the other symbols and alphanumerics. The system has the capability of interfacing with ARTCC's.
(See POSITION REPORT.)
PROGRESSIVE TAXI- Precise taxi instructions given to a pilot unfamiliar with the airport or issued in stages as the aircraft proceeds along the taxi route.
(See SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE.)
(See ICAO term PROHIBITED AREA.)
PROHIBITED AREA [ICAO]- An airspace of defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial waters of a State, within which the flight of aircraft is prohibited.
PROPOSED BOUNDARY CROSSING TIME- Each center has a PBCT parameter for each internal airport. Proposed internal flight plans are transmitted to the adjacent center if the flight time along the proposed route from the departure airport to the center boundary is less than or equal to the value of PBCT or if airport adaptation specifies transmission regardless of PBCT.
PROPOSED DEPARTURE TIME- The time a scheduled flight will depart the gate (scheduled operators) or the actual runway off time for nonscheduled operators. For EDCT purposes, the ATCSCC adjusts the "P" time for scheduled operators to reflect the runway off times.
PROTECTED AIRSPACE- The airspace on either side of an oceanic route/track that is equal to one-half the lateral separation minimum except where reduction of protected airspace has been authorized.
(See PROCEDURE TURN.)
(See POLAR TRACK STRUCTURE.)
PUBLISHED ROUTE- A route for which an IFR altitude has been established and published; e.g., Federal Airways, Jet Routes, Area Navigation Routes, Specified Direct Routes.
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